November 24, 2007

Requirements for Bicycles 16 CFR Part 1512

[Code of Federal Regulations]
[Title 16, Volume 2, Parts 1000 to end]
[Revised as of January 1, 1998]
From the U.S. Government Printing Office via GPO Access
[CITE: 16CFR1512]

[Page 502-522]

TITLE 16--COMMERCIAL PRACTICES

CHAPTER II--CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION

PART 1512--REQUIREMENTS FOR BICYCLES--Table of Contents

Subpart A--Regulations

Sec. 1512.1 Scope.

This part sets forth the requirements for a bicycle as defined in
Sec. 1512.2(a) (except a bicycle that is a ``track bicycle'' or a ``one-
of-a-kind bicycle'' as defined in Sec. 1512.2 (d) and (e)) which is not
a banned article under Sec. 1500.18(a)(12) of this chapter.

Sec. 1512.2 Definitions.

For the purposes of this part:
(a) Bicycle means:
(1) a two-wheeled vehicle having a rear drive wheel
that is solely human-powered;
(2) A two- or three-wheeled vehicle with fully operable pedals and an electric motor of less than 750 watts (1 h.p.), whose maximum speed on a paved level surface, when powered solely by such a motor while ridden by
an operator who weighs 170 pounds, is less than 20 mph.
(b) Sidewalk bicycle means a bicycle with a seat height of no more
than 635 mm (25.0 in); the seat height is measured with the seat
adjusted to its highest position.
(c) Seat height means the dimension from the point on the seat
surface intersected by the seat post center line (or the center of the
seating area if no seat post exists) and the ground plane, as measured
with the wheels aligned and in a plane normal to the ground plane.
(d) Track bicycle means a bicycle designed and intended for sale as
a competitive machine having tubular tires, single crank-to-wheel ratio,
and no free-wheeling feature between the rear wheel and the crank.
(e) One-of-a-kind bicycle means a bicycle that is uniquely
constructed to the order of an individual consumer other than by
assembly of stock or production parts.
(f) Normal riding position means that the rider is seated on the
bicycle with both feet on the pedals and both hands on the handlegrips
(and in a position that allows operation of handbrake levers if so
equipped); the seat and handlebars may be adjusted to positions judged
by the rider to be comfortable.

Sec. 1512.3 Requirements in general.

Any bicycle subject to the regulations in this part shall meet the
requirements of this part in the condition to which it is offered for
sale to consumers; any bicycle offered for sale to consumers in
disassembled or partially assembled condition shall meet these
requirements after assembly according to the manufacturer's
instructions. For the purpose of compliance with this part, where the
metric and English units are not equal due to the conversion process the
less stringent requirement will prevail.

Sec. 1512.4 Mechanical requirements.

(a) Assembly. Bicycles shall be manufactured such that mechanical
skills required of the consumer for assembly shall not exceed those
possessed by an adult of normal intelligence and ability.
(b) Sharp edges. There shall be no unfinished sheared metal edges or
other sharp parts on bicycles that are, or may be, exposed to hands or
legs; sheared metal edges that are not rolled shall be finished so as to
remove any feathering of edges, or any burrs of spurs caused during the
shearing process.
(c) Integrity. There shall be no visible fracture of the frame or of
any steering, wheel, pedal, crank, or brake system component resulting
from testing in accordance with: The handbrake loading and performance
test, Sec. 1512.18(d); the foot brake force and performance test,
Sec. 1512.18(e); and the road test, Sec. 1512.18(p) (or the sidewalk
bicycle proof test, Sec. 1512.18(q)).
(d) Attachment hardware. All screws, bolts, or nuts used to attach
or secure components shall not fracture, loosen, or otherwise fail their
intended function during the tests required in this part. All threaded
hardware shall be of sufficient quality to allow adjustments and
maintenance. Recommended quality thread form is specified in Handbook
H28, ``Screw Thread Standards for Federal Service,'' \1\ issued by the
National Bureau of Standards, Department of Commerce; recommended
mechanical properties are specified in ISO Recommendation R898,
``Mechanical Properties of Fasteners,'' and in ISO

[[Page 503]]

Recommendations 68, 262, and 263, ``General Purpose Screw Threads.'' \2\
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\1\ Copies may be obtained from: Superintendent of Documents, U.S.
Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402.
\2\ Copies may be obtained from: American National Standards
Institute, 1430 Broadway, New York, New York 10018.
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(e)-(f) [Reserved]
(g) Excluded area. There shall be no protrusions located within the
area bounded by (1) a line 89 mm (3\1/2\ in) to the rear of and parallel
to the handlebar stem; (2) a line tangent to the front tip of the seat
and intersecting the seat mast at the top rear stay; (3) the top surface
of the top tube; and (4) a line connecting the front of the seat (when
adjusted to its highest position) to the junction where the handlebar is
attached to the handlebar stem. The top tube on a female bicycle model
shall be the seat mast and the down tube or tubes that are nearest the
rider in the normal riding position. Control cables no greater than 6.4
mm (\1/4\ in) in diameter and cable clamps made from material not
thicker than 4.8 mm (\3/16\ in) may be attached to the top tube.
(h) [Reserved]
(i) Control cable ends. Ends of all control cables shall be provided
with protective caps or otherwise treated to prevent unraveling.
Protective caps shall be tested in accordance with the protective cap
and end-mounted devices test, Sec. 1512.18(c), and shall withstand a
pull of 8.9 N (2.0 lbf).
(j) Control cable abrasion. Control cables shall not abrade over
fixed parts and shall enter and exit cable sheaths in a direction in
line with the sheath entrance and exit so as to prevent abrading.

Sec. 1512.5 Requirements for braking system.

(a) Braking system. Bicycles shall be equipped with front- and rear-
wheel brakes or rear-wheel brakes only.
(b) Handbrakes. Handbrakes shall be tested at least ten times by
applying a force sufficient to cause the handlever to contact the
handlebar, or a maximum of 445 N (100 lbf), in accordance with the
loading test, Sec. 1512.18(d)(2), and shall be rocked back and forth
with the weight of a 68.1 kg (150 lb) rider on the seat with the same
handbrake force applied in accordance with the rocking test,
Sec. 1512.18(d)(2)(iii); there shall be no visible fractures, failures,
movement of clamps, or misalignment of brake components.
(1) Stopping distance. A bicycle equipped with only handbrakes shall
be tested for stopping distance by a rider of at least 68.1 kg (150 lb)
weight in accordance with the performance test, Sec. 1512.18(d)(2) (v)
and (vi), and shall have a stopping distance of no greater than 4.57 m
(15 ft) from the actual test speed as determined by the equivalent
ground speed specified in Sec. 1512.18(d)(2)(vi).
(2) Hand lever access. Hand lever mechanisms shall be located on the
handlebars in a position that is readily accessible to the rider when in
a normal riding position.
(3) Grip dimension. The grip dimension (maximum outside dimension
between the brake hand lever and the handlebars in the plane containing
the centerlines of the handgrip and the hand brake lever) shall not
exceed 89 mm (3\1/2\ in) at any point between the pivot point of the
lever and lever midpoint; the grip dimension for sidewalk bicycles shall
not exceed 76 mm (3 in). The grip dimension may increase toward the open
end of the lever but shall not increase by more than 12.7 mm (\1/2\ in)
except for the last 12.7 mm (\1/2\ in) of the lever. (See figure 5 of
this part 1512.)
(4) Attachment. Brake assemblies shall be securely attached to the
frame by means of fasteners with locking devices such as a lock washer,
locknut, or equivalent and shall not loosen during the rocking test,
Sec. 1512.18(d)- (2)(iii). The cable anchor bolt shall not cut any of
the cable strands.
(5) Operating force. A force of less than 44.5 N (10 lbf) shall
cause the brake pads to contact the braking surface of the wheel when
applied to the handlever at a point 25 mm (1.0 in) from the open end of
the handlever.
(6) Pad and pad holders. Caliper brake pad shall be replaceable and
adjustable to engage the braking surface without contacting the tire or
spokes and the pad holders shall be securely attached to the caliper
assembly. The brake pad material shall be retained in its holder without
movement when the bicycle is loaded with a rider of at least 68.1 kg
(150 lb) weight and is rocked forward

[[Page 504]]

and backward as specified in the rocking test, Sec. 1512.18(d)(2)(iii).
(7) [Reserved]
(8) Hand lever location. The rear brake shall be actuated by a
control located on the right handlebar and the front brake shall be
actuated by a control located on the left handlebar. The left-hand/
right-hand locations may be reversed in accordance with an individual
customer order. If a single hand lever is used to actuate both front and
rear brakes, it shall meet all applicable requirements for hand levers
and shall be located on either the right or left handlebar in accordance
with the customer's preference.
(9) Hand lever extensions. Bicycles equipped with hand lever
extensions shall be tested with the extension levers in place and the
hand lever extensions shall also be considered to be hand levers.
(c) Footbrakes. All footbrakes shall be tested in accordance with
the force test, Sec. 1512.18(e)(2), and the measured braking force shall
not be less than 178 N (40 lbf) for an applied pedal force of 310 N (70
lbf).
(1) Stopping distance. Bicycles equipped with footbrakes (except
sidewalk bicycles) shall be tested in accordance with the performance
test, Sec. 1512.18(e)(3), by a rider of at least 68.1 kg (150 lb) weight
and shall have a stopping distance of no greater than 4.57 m (15 ft)
from an actual test speed of at least 16 km/h (10 mph). If the bicycle
has a footbrake only and the equivalent groundspeed of the bicycle is in
excess of 24 km/h (15 mph) (in its highest gear ratio at a pedal crank
rate of 60 revolutions per minute), \3\ the stopping distance shall be
4.57 m (15 ft) from an actual test speed of 24 km/h (15 mph) or greater.
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\3\ This is proportional to a gear development greater than 6.67 m
(21.9 ft) in the bicycle's highest gear ratio. Gear development is the
distance the bicycle travels in meters, in one crank revolution.
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(2) Operating force. Footbrakes shall be actuated by a force applied
to the pedal in a direction opposite to that of the drive force, except
where brakes are separate from the drive pedals and the applied force is
in the same direction as the drive force.
(3) Crank differential. The differential between the drive and brake
positions of the crank shall be not more than 60 deg. with the crank
held against each position under a torque of no less than 13.6 N-m (10
ft-lb).
(4) Independent operation. The brake mechanism shall function
independently of any drive-gear positions or adjustments.
(d) Footbrakes and handbrakes in combination. Bicycles equipped with
footbrakes and handbrakes shall meet all the requirements for footbrakes
in Sec. 1512.5(c), including the tests specified. In addition, if the
equivalent ground speed of the bicycle is 24 km/h (15 mph) or greater
(in its highest gear ratio at a pedal crank rate of 60 revolutions per
minute), \3\ the actual test speed specified in Sec. 1512.18(e)(3) shall
be increased to 24 km/h (15 mph) and both braking systems may be
actuated to achieve the required stopping distance of 4.57 m (15 ft).
(e) Sidewalk bicycles. (1) Sidewalk bicycles shall not have
handbrakes only.
(2) Sidewalk bicycles with a seat height of 560 mm (22 in) or
greater (with seat height adjusted to its lowest position) shall be
equipped with a footbrake meeting all the footbrake requirements of
Sec. 1512.5(c), including the specified tests except that the braking
force transmitted to the rear wheel shall be in accordance with the
sidewalk bicycle footbrake force tests, Sec. 1512.18(f).
(3) Sidewalk bicycles with a seat height less than 560 mm (22 in)
(with seat height adjusted to its lowest position) and not equipped with
a brake shall not have a freewheel feature. Such sidewalk bicycles
equipped with a footbrake shall be tested for brake force in accordance
with the sidewalk bicycle footbrake force test, Sec. 1512.18(f). Such
sidewalk bicycles not equipped with brakes shall be identified with a
permanent label clearly visible from a distance of 3.1 m (10 ft) in
daylight conditions and promotional display material and shipping
cartons shall prominently display the words ``No Brakes.''

[[Page 505]]

Sec. 1512.6 Requirements for steering system.

(a) Handlebar stem insertion mark. The handlebar stem shall contain
a permanent ring or mark which clearly indicates the minimum insertion
depth of the handlebar stem into the fork assembly. The insertion mark
shall not affect the structural integrity of the stem and shall not be
less than 2\1/2\ times the stem diameter from the lowest point of the
stem. The stem strength shall be maintained for at least a length of one
shaft diameter below the mark.
(b) Handlebar stem strength. The handlebar stem shall be tested for
strength in accordance with the handlebar stem test, Sec. 1512.18(g),
and shall withstand a force of 2000 N (450 lbf) for bicycles and 1000 N
(225 lbf) for sidewalk bicycles.
(c) Handlebar. Handlebars shall allow comfortable and safe control
of the bicycle. Handlebar ends shall be symmetrically located with
respect to the longitudinal axis of the bicycle and no more than 406 mm
(16 in) above the seat surface when the seat is in its lowest position
and the handlebar ends are in their highest position.
(d) Handlebar ends. The ends of the handlebars shall be capped or
otherwise covered. Handgrips, end plugs, control shifters, or other end-
mounted devices shall be secure against a removal force of no less than
66.8 N (15 lbf) in accordance with the protective cap and end-mounted
devices test, Sec. 1512.18(c).
(e) Handlebar and clamps. The handlebar and clamps shall be tested
in accordance with the handlebar test, Sec. 1512.18(h). Directions for
assembly of the bicycle required in the instruction manual by
Sec. 1512.19(a)(2) shall include an explicit warning about the danger of
damaging the stem-to-fork assembly and the risk of injury to the rider
that can result from overtightening the stem bolt or other clamping
device. The directions for assembly shall also contain a simple, clear,
and precise statement of the procedure to be followed to avoid damaging
the stem-to-fork assembly when tightening the stem bolt or other
clamping device.

Sec. 1512.7 Requirements for pedals.

(a) Construction. Pedals shall have right-hand/left-hand symmetry.
The tread surface shall be present on both top and bottom surfaces of
the pedal except that if the pedal has a definite preferred position,
the tread surface need only be on the surface presented to the rider's
foot.
(b) Toe clips. Pedals intended to be used only with toe clips shall
have toe clips securely attached to them and need not have tread
surfaces. Pedals designed for optional use of toe clips shall have tread
surfaces.
(c) Pedal reflectors. Pedals for bicycles other than sidewalk
bicycles shall have reflectors in accordance with Sec. 1512.16(e).
Pedals for sidewalk bicycles are not required to have reflectors.

Sec. 1512.8 Requirements for drive chain.

The drive chain shall operate over the sprockets without catching or
binding. The tensile stength of the drive chain shall be no less than
8010 N (1,800 lbf) or 6230 N (1,400 lbf) for sidewalk bicycles.

Sec. 1512.9 Requirements for protective guards.

(a) Chain guard. Bicycles having a single front sprocket and a
single rear sprocket shall have a chain guard that shall cover the top
strand of the chain and at least 90 deg. of the perimeter where the
drive chain contacts the drive sprocket as shown in figure 7. The chain
guard shall extend rearward to a point at least 8 cm (3.2 in.) forward
of the centerline of the rear axle. The minimum width of the top area of
the chain guard shall be twice the width of the chain in that portion
forward of the rear wheel rim. The rear part of the top area may be
tapered. The minimum width at the rear of the guard shall be one-half
the chain width. Such chain guard shall prevent a rod of 9.4 mm (\3/8\
in.) diameter and 76 mm (3.0 in.) length from entrapment between the
upper junction of the chain and the sprocket when introduced from the
chain side of the bicycle in any direction within 45 deg. from a line
normal to the sprocket.
(b) Derailleur guard. Derailleurs shall be guarded to prevent the
drive chain from interfering with or stopping the rotation of the wheel
through improper adjustments or damage.

[[Page 506]]

Sec. 1512.10 Requirements for tires.

The manufacturer's recommended inflation pressure shall be molded
into or onto the sidewall of the tire in lettering no less than 3.2 mm
(\1/8\ in.) in height. The statement of recommended inflation pressure
shall be in the English language utilizing Arabic numerals. (The
following language is suggested to indicate recommended inflation
pressure: ``Inflate to -- PSI.'') After inflation to 110 percent of the
recommended inflation pressure, the tire shall remain intact on the rim,
including while being tested under a load of 2,000 N (450 lbf) in
accordance with the rim test, Sec. 1512.18(j). Tubular sew-up tires,
nonpneumatic tires, and nonmolded wired-on tires are exempt from this
section.

Sec. 1512.11 Requirements for wheels.

(a) Spokes. There shall be no missing spokes.
(b) Alignment. The wheel assembly shall be aligned such that no less
than 1.6 mm (\1/16\ in.) clearance exists between the tire and fork or
any frame member when the wheel is rotated to any position.
(c) Rims. Rims shall retain the spokes and tire when side-loaded
with 2000 N (450 lbf) and tested in accordance with the rim test,
Sec. 1512.18(j). Sidewalk bicycles need not meet this requirement.

Sec. 1512.12 Requirements for wheel hubs.

All bicycles (other than sidewalk bicycles) shall meet the following
requirements:
(a) Locking devices. Wheels shall be secured to the bicycle frame
with a positive lock device. Locking devices on threaded axles shall be
tightened to the manufacturer's specifications.
(1) Rear wheels. There shall be no relative motion between the axle
and the frame when a force of 1,780 N (400 lbf) is applied symmetrically
to the axle for a period of 30 seconds in the direction of wheel
removal.
(2) Front wheels. Locking devices, except quick-release devices,
shall withstand application of a torque in the direction of removal of
17 N-m (12.5 ft-lb).
(b) Quick-release devices. Lever-operated quick-release devices
shall be adjustable to allow setting the lever position for tightness.
Quick-release levers shall be clearly visible to the rider and shall
indicate whether the levers are in a locked or unlocked position. Quick-
release clamp action shall emboss the frame or fork when locked.
(c) Front hubs. Front hubs not equipped with lever-operated quick-
release devices shall have a positive retention feature that shall be
tested in accordance with the front hub retention test,
Sec. 1512.18(j)(3), to assure that when the locking devices are released
the wheel will not separate from the fork.

Sec. 1512.13 Requirements for front fork.

The front fork shall be tested for strength by application of at
least 39.5 J (350 in-lb) of energy in accordance with the fork test,
Sec. 1512.18(k)(1), without visible evidence of fracture. Sidewalk
bicycles need not meet this requirement.

Sec. 1512.14 Requirements for fork and frame assembly.

The fork and frame assembly shall be tested for strength by
application of a load of 890 N (200 lbf) or at least 39.5 J (350 in-lb)
of energy, whichever results in the greater force, in accordance with
the frame test, Sec. 1512.18(k)(2), without visible evidence of fracture
or frame deformation that significantly limits the steering angle over
which the wheel can be turned. Sidewalk bicycles are exempt from this
section.

Sec. 1512.15 Requirements for seat.

(a) Seat limitation. No part of the seat, seat supports, or
accessories attached to the seat shall be more than 125 mm (5.0 in.)
above the top of the seat surface at the point where the seat surface is
intersected by the seat post axis.
(b) Seat post. The seat post shall contain a permanent mark or ring
that clearly indicates the minimum insertion depth (maximum seat-height
adjustment); the mark shall not affect the structural integrity of the
seat post. This mark shall be located no less than two seat-post
diameters from the lowest point on the post shaft, and the post strength
shall be maintained for at least a length of one shaft diameter below
the mark.

[[Page 507]]

(c) Adjustment clamps. The seat adjustment clamps shall be capable
of securing the seat in any position to which it can be adjusted and
preventing movement of the seat in any direction under normal conditions
of use. Following the road test, Sec. 1512.18(p) (or the sidewalk
bicycle proof test, Sec. 1512.18(q), as applicable), the seat clamps
shall be tested in accordance with the seat adjustment clamps and load
test, Sec. 1512.18(l).

Sec. 1512.16 Requirements for reflectors.

Bicycles shall be equipped with reflective devices to permit
recognition and identification under illumination from motor vehicle
headlamps. The use of reflector combinations off the center plane of the
bicycle (defined in Sec. 1512.18(m)(2)) is acceptable if each reflector
meets the requirements of this section and of Sec. 1512.18 (m) and (n)
and the combination of reflectors has a clear field of view of
plus-minus10 deg. vertically and plus-minus50 deg.
horizontally. Sidewalk bicycles are not required to have reflectors.
(a) Front, rear, and pedal reflectors. There shall be an essentially
colorless front-facing reflector, essentially colorless or amber pedal
reflectors, and a red rear-facing reflector.
(b) Side reflectors. There shall be retroreflective tire sidewalls
or, alternatively, reflectors mounted on the spokes of each wheel, or,
for non-caliper rim brake bicycles, retroreflective wheel rims. The
center of spoke-mounted reflectors shall be within 76 mm (3.0 in.) of
the inside of the rim. Side reflective devices shall be visible on each
side of the wheel.
(c) Front reflector. The reflector or mount shall not contact the
ground plane when the bicycle is resting on that plane in any
orientation. The optical axis of the reflector shall be directed forward
within 5 deg. of the horizontal-vertical alignment of the bicycle when
the wheels are tracking in a straight line, as defined in
Sec. 1512.18(m)(2). The reflectors and/or mounts shall incorporate a
distinct, preferred assembly method that shall insure that the reflector
meets the optical requirements of this paragraph (c) when the reflector
is attached to the bicycle. The front reflector shall be tested in
accordance with the reflector mount and alignment test, Sec. 1512.18(m).
(d) Rear reflector. The reflector or mount shall not contact the
ground plane when the bicycle is resting on that plane in any
orientation. The reflector shall be mounted such that it is to the rear
of the seat mast with the top of the reflector at least 76 mm (3.0 in)
below the point on the seat surface that is intersected by the line of
the seat post. The optical axis of the reflector shall be directed
rearward within 5 deg. of the horizontal-vertical alignment of the
bicycle when the wheels are traveling in a straight line, as defined in
Sec. 1512.18(m)(2). The reflectors and/or mounts shall incorporate a
distinct, preferred assembly method that shall insure that the reflector
meets the optical requirements of this paragraph (d) when the reflector
is attached to the bicycle. The rear reflector shall be tested in
accordance with the reflector mount and alignment test, Sec. 1512.18(m).
(e) Pedal reflectors. Each pedal shall have reflectors located on
the front and rear surfaces of the pedal. The reflector elements may be
either integral with the construction of the pedal or mechanically
attached, but shall be sufficiently recessed from the edge of the pedal,
or of the reflector housing, to prevent contact of the reflector element
with a flat surface placed in contact with the edge of the pedal.
(f) Side reflectors. Reflectors affixed to the wheel spokes shall be
mounted either flat on the spokes or within the spoke cage such that the
angle between the optical axis and the normal to the plane of the wheel
shall not exceed the angle of the spokes with the plane of the wheel.
The reflectors shall not interfere with any wheel adjustments. The side-
mounted reflector devices shall be essentially colorless or amber on the
front wheel and essentially colorless or red on the rear wheel.
(g) Reflector tests. The pedal, front-mount, rear-mount, and side-
mount reflectors shall be tested in accordance with the reflector test,
Sec. 1512.18(n), to assure the reflectance values over the angles given
in tables 1 and 2.
(h) Retroreflective tire sidewalls. When retroreflective tire
sidewalls are used in lieu of spoke-mounted reflectors, the

[[Page 508]]

reflecting material shall meet the following requirements:
(1) The retroreflective material shall form a continuous circle on
the sidewall.
(2) The retroreflective material shall adhere to the tire such that
after the tire has been subjected to a temperature of
50 deg.plus-minus3 deg.C (122 deg.plus-minus5.4
deg.F) for 30 minutes, the retroreflective material cannot be peeled or
scraped away without removal of tire material.
(3) The retroreflective material shall be as resistant to abrasion
as is the adjacent sidewall material so that when retroreflective
material is removed from the inflated tire by abrasion with a wet, steel
bristle brush, tire material will be removed along with the
retroreflective material.
(4) The retroreflective material shall be tested for performance in
accordance with the retroreflective tire test, Sec. 1512.18(o), to
assure the reflectance properties over the angles given in table 3. When
a portion of the retroreflective material is selected (and the remainder
is masked as specified in Sec. 1512.18(o)(2)(i)), the selected portion
shall not contact the ground plane when the assembled bicycle is resting
on that plane in any orientation.
(i) Retroreflective rims. When retroreflective rims are used in lieu
of spoke-mounted reflectors or retroreflective tire sidewalls, the
reflecting material shall meet the following requirements:
(1) The retroreflective material shall form a continuous circle on
the rim.
(2) If the retroreflective material is applied to the rim in the
form of a self-adhesive tape, the following requirement must be met: Use
a sharp knife, razor blade, or similar instrument to carefully release
an end of the tape material sufficient to be grasped between the thumb
and finger. Grasp the freed tape end and gradually pull in a direction
90 deg. to the plane of the rim. The tape material must break before
additional separation (peeling) from the rim is observed.
(3) After the retroreflective material is abraded in accordance with
the abrasion test for retroreflective rims at Sec. 1512.18(r), the rim
must then be tested for performance in accordance with the
retroreflective tire and rim test at Sec. 1512.18(o), to assure the
reflectance properties over the angles given in table 3.
[43 FR 60034, Dec. 22, 1978, as amended at 45 FR 82627, 82628, Dec. 16,
1980]

Sec. 1512.17 Other requirements.

(a) Road test. Bicycles, other than sidewalk bicycles, shall be
ridden at least 6.4 km (4.0 mi.) by a rider weighing at least 68.1kg
(150 lb.) and travel five times over a 30.5 m (100 ft.) cleated course
in accordance with the road test, Sec. 1512.18(p), and shall exhibit
stable handling, turning, and steering characteristics without
difficulty of operation. There shall be no system or component failure
of the structure, brakes, or tires, and there shall be no loosening or
misalignment of the seat, handlebars, controls, or reflectors during or
resulting from this test.
(b) Sidewalk bicycle proof test. Sidewalk bicycles shall be dropped
a distance of at least 300 mm (1.0 ft.) three times onto a paved surface
with weights attached in accordance with the sidewalk bicycle proof
test, Sec. 1512.18(q). There shall be no fracture of wheels, frame,
seat, handlebars, or fork during or resulting from this test.
(c) Ground clearance. With the pedal horizontal and the pedal crank
in its lowest position and any training wheels removed, it shall be
possible to tilt the bicycle at least 25 deg. from the vertical without
the pedal or any other part (other than tires) contacting the ground
plane.
(d) Toe clearance. Bicycles not equipped with positive foot-
retaining devices (such as toe clips) shall have at least 89 mm (3\1/2\
in) clearance between the pedal and the front tire or fender (when
turned to any position). The clearance shall be measured forward and
parallel to the longitudinal axis of the bicycle from the center of
either pedal to the arc swept by the tire or fender, whichever results
in the least clearance. (See figure 6 of this part 1512.)

Sec. 1512.18 Tests and test procedures.

(a) Sharp edge test. [Reserved]
(b) [Reserved]
(c) Protective cap and end-mounted devices test. (Ref.
Sec. 1512.4(i), Sec. 1512.6(d).)

[[Page 509]]

Any device suitable for exerting a removal force of at least 67 N (15
lbf) for protective caps and 8.9 N (2.0 lbf) for end caps at any point
and in any direction may be used. All protective caps and end-mounted
handlebar devices shall be tested to determine that they cannot be
removed by application of the specified forces.
(d) Handbrake loading and performance test. (Ref. Sec. 1512.5(b)).
(1) Apparatus. A spring scale or other suitable device for measuring
the specified forces on the handbrake levers and a dry, clean, level,
paved surface of adequate length.
(2) Procedure. The loading test, Sec. 1512.18(d)(2)(i), and the
rocking test, Sec. 1512.18(d)(2)(iii), shall be performed before the
performance test, Sec. 1512.18(d)(2)(v), is performed and no adjustments
shall be made between these tests.
(i) Loading test procedure. The hand levers shall be actuated with a
force applied at a point no more than 25 mm (1.0 in) from the open end
of the lever. If the hand lever contacts the handlebar (bottoms) before
a force of 445 N (100 lbf) is reached, the loading may be stopped at
that point, otherwise the loading shall be increased to at least 445 N
(100 lbf). \4\ Application of the loading force shall be repeated for a
total of 10 times and all brake components shall be inspected.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

\4\ For hand lever extensions, the loading shall be continued until
a force of 445 N (100 lbf) is reached or the hand lever extension is in
the same plane as the upper surface of the handlebars or the extension
lever contacts the handlebars.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

(ii) Loading test criteria. There shall be no visible fractures,
failures, misalignments, and clearances not in compliance with
applicable parts of Sec. 1512.5.
(iii) Rocking test procedure. A weight of at least 68.1 kg (150 lb)
shall be placed on the seat; the force required for the hand levers to
contact the handlebars or 445 N (100 lbf), as determined in
Sec. 1512.18(d)(2), shall be applied to the hand levers; 4
and the bicycle shall be rocked forward and backward over a dry, clean,
level, paved surface at least six times and for a distance of at least
76 mm (3 in) in each direction.
(iv) Rocking test criteria. There shall be no loosening of the brake
pads, pad holders, or cable and hand-lever securing devices or any other
functional brake component.
(v) Performance test procedure. The following test conditions,
unless otherwise specified in this part 1512, shall be followed:
(A) The bicycle shall be ridden over a dry, clean, smooth paved test
course free from protruding aggregate. The test course shall provide a
coefficient of friction of less then 1.0 and shall have a slope of less
than 1 percent.
(B) The wind velocity shall be less than 11 km/h (7 mph).
(C) Only the brake system under test shall be actuated.
(D) The bicycle shall attain the specified ground speed while the
rider is in the normal riding position.
(E) The rider shall remain in the normal riding position throughout
the test.
(F) The bicycle must be moving in a straight line at the start of
brake application.
(G) Corrections for velocity at the initiation of braking may be
made. The corrected braking distance shall be computed as follow:

Sc=(Vs/Vm)2Sm

where:

Sc=Corrected braking distance,
Vs=Specified test velocity.
Vm=Measured test velocity,
Sm=Measured braking distance.


The test run is invalid if at the commencement of the test, the measured
test speed of the bicycle is not less than nor greater than the test
speed required by this part 1512 by 1.5 km/h (0.9 mph).
(H) Four test runs are required. The stopping distance shall be
determined by averaging the results of the four test runs.
(I) The stopping distances specified are based on a rider weight of
at least 68.1 kg (150 lb) and a maximum rider and weight combination of
91 kg (200 lb). Greater stopping distances are allowable for heavier
riders and test equipment weights at the rate of 0.30 m per 4.5 kg (1.0
ft per 10 lb).
(J) A test run is invalid if front-wheel lockup occurs.
(vi) Performance test criteria. The stopping force applied to the
hand lever at

[[Page 510]]

a point no closer than 25 mm (1.0 in) from the open end shall not exceed
178 N (40 lbf). Bicycles with an equivalent ground speed in excess of 24
km/h (15 mph) (in its highest gear ratio at a pedal crank rate of 60
revolutions per minute) \3\ shall stop from an actual test speed of 24
km/h (15 mph) or greater within a distance of 4.57 m (15 ft); when the
equivalent ground speed is less than 24 km/h (15 mph) under the same
conditions, the bicycle shall stop from an actual test speed of 16 km/h
(10 mph) or greater within a distance of 4.57 m (15 ft).
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

\3\ See footnote 3 to Sec. 1512.5.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

(e) Footbrake force and performance test. (Ref. Sec. 1512.5(c) (1)
and (2)):
(1) Apparatus. Suitable devices for exerting and measuring the
required forces and a dry, clean, level, paved surface of adequate
length.
(2) Force test. The braking force shall be measured as the wheel is
rotated in a direction of forward motion, and the braking force is
measured in a direction tangential to the tire during a steady pull
after the wheel completes one-half revolution but before the wheel
completes one revolution. The brake shall be capable of producing a
linearly proportional brake force for a gradually applied pedal force
from 89 N to 310 N (20 to 70 lbf) and shall not be less than 178 N (40
lbf) for an applied pedal force of 310 N (70 lbf). All data points must
fall within plus or minus 20 percent of the brake force, based on the
measured brake load using the least square method of obtaining the best
straight line curve.
(3) Performance test. The procedure of Sec. 1512.18(d)(2)(v) shall
be followed to test the footbrake performance. The stopping distance
shall be less than 4.57 m (15 ft) from an actual test speed of 16 km/h
(10 mph). In addition, if the equivalent ground speed of the bicycle is
in excess of 24 km/h (15 mph) (in its highest gear ratio at a pedal
crank rate of 60 revolutions per minute), \3\ the stopping distance
shall be 4.57 m (15 ft) from an actual test speed of 24 km/h (15 mph) or
greater.

Note: No allowance shall be made for rider weight. See
Sec. 1512.5(d) for additional requirements for bicycles with both
handbrakes and footbrakes.

(f) Sidewalk bicycle footbrake force test. For sidewalk bicycles,
the footbrake force test is the same as for bicycles except; the brake
force transmitted to the rear wheel shall continually increase as the
pedal force is increased from 44.5 N to 225 N (10 to 50 lbf). The ratio
of applied pedal force to braking force shall not be greater than two-
to-one.
(g) Handlebar stem test. (Ref. Sec. 1512.6(b)).
(1) Procedure. The handlebar stem shall be tested for strength by
applying a force of 2000 N (450 lbf), in a forward direction, for
bicycles, or 1000 N (225 lbf) for sidewalk bicycles, at a point in line
with the handlbar attachment point and at an angle of 45 deg. from the
stem centerline (See fig. 2).
(2) Criteria. No visible fractures shall result from this test.
(h) Handlebar test. (Ref. Sec. 1512.6(e)).
(1) Stem-to-fork clamp test--(i) Procedure. The handlebar and
handlebar stem shall be assembled to the bicycle in accordance with the
manufacturer's instructions. The handlebar-fork assembly shall be
subjected to a torque applied about the axis of the stem, and shall then
be disassembled and examined for signs of structural damage including
cracking, splitting, stripping of threads, bearing damage, and bulging
of the stem and fork structures. The handlebar and handlebar stem
components shall be inspected for visible signs of galling, gouging, and
scoring not due to normal assembly and disassembly operations.
(ii) Criteria. There shall be no visible movement between the stem
and fork when a torque of 47+3, -0 N-m (35+2, -0 ft=lb) for bicycles and
20+3, -0 N-m (15+2, -0 ft=lb) for sidewalk bicycles is applied to the
handlebar about the stem-to-fork axis. There shall be no visible signs
of damage to the stem-to-fork assembly or any component part thereof.
(2) Handlebar strength and clamp test--(i) Procedure. The stem shall
be in place on the bicycle or in an equivalent test fixture and secured
according to manufacturer's instructions. A load shall be applied
equally to each handlebar end in a direction to cause the greatest
torque about the handlebar-to-stem

[[Page 511]]

clamp; deflection shall be measured along the line of applied force.
(ii) Criteria. The handlebars shall support a force of no less than
445 N (100 lbf) or absorb no less than 22.6 J (200 in-lb) of energy
through a maximum deflection of no more than 76 mm (3.0 in.); the
handlebar clamp shall prevent rotational movement of the handlebars
relative to the clamp, and there shall be no visible fractures.
(i) Pedal slip test. [Reserved]
(j) Rim test. (Ref. Secs. 1512.10 and 1512.11(c)):
(1) Procedure. Only one wheel need be tested if the front and rear
wheel are of identical construction. The wheel to be tested shall be
removed from the bicycle and be supported circumferentially around the
tire sidewall. A load of 2000 N (450 lbf) shall be applied to the axle
and normal to the plane of the wheel for at least 30 seconds. If the
wheel hub is offset, the load shall be applied in the direction of the
offset.
(2) Criteria. The wheel and tire assembly shall be inspected for
compliance with the requirements of Sec. 1512.11(a) and shall be
remounted on the bicycle according to the manufacturer's instructions
and shall turn freely without roughness and shall comply with the
requirement of Sec. 1512.11(b).
(3) Front hub retention test. (Ref. Sec. 1512.12(c)).
(i) Procedures. Front hub locking devices shall be released. When
threaded nuts and axles are used, the nuts shall be open at least
360 deg. from a finger tight condition. A separation force of at least
111 N (25 lb) shall be applied to the hub on a line along the slots in
the fork ends.
(ii) Criteria. The front hub shall not separate from the fork;
fenders, mudguards, struts, and brakes shall not be allowed to restrain
the separation.
(k) Fork and frame test. (Ref. Secs. 1512.13 and 1512.14):
(1) Fork test--(i) Procedure. With the fork stem supported in a 76
mm (3.0 in) vee block and secured by the method illustrated in figure 1
of this part 1512, a load shall be applied at the axle attachment in a
direction perpendicular to the centerline of the stem and against the
direction of the rake. Load and deflection readings shall be recorded
and plotted at the point of loading. The load shall be increased until a
deflection of 64 mm (2\1/2\ in) is reached.
(ii) Criteria. Energy of at least 39.5 J (350 in-lb) shall be
absorbed with a deflection in the direction of the force of no more than
64 mm (2\1/2\ in.).
(2) Fork and frame assembly test--(i) Procedure. The fork, or one
identical to that tested in accordance with the fork test,
Sec. 1512.18(k)(1), shall be replaced on the bicycle in accordance with
the manufacturer's instructions; and a load of 890 N (200 lbf), or an
energy of at least 39.5 J (350 in-lb), whichever results in the greater
force, shall be applied to the fork at the axle attachment point against
the direction of the rake in line with the rear wheel axle. The test
load shall be counteracted by a force applied at the location of the
rear axle during this test.
(ii) Criteria. There shall be no visible evidence of fracture and no
deformation of frame that significantly limits the steering angle over
which the front wheel can be turned.
(l) Seat adjustment clamps and load test. (Ref. Sec. 1512.15(c)).
(1) Procedure. A force of at least 668 N (150 lbf) shall be applied
vertically downward (334 N (75 lbf) for sidewalk bicycles) to a point
within 25 mm (1.0 in.) from either the front or rear of the seat,
whichever produces the greatest torque on the seat clamp. After removal
of this force, a force of 222 N (50 lbf) shall then be applied
horizontally (111 N (25 lbf) for sidewalk bicycles) to a point within 25
mm (1.0 in.) from either the front or rear of the seat, whichever
produces the greatest torque on the clamp.
(2) Criteria. No movement of the seat with respect to the seat post,
or of the seat post with respect to the bicycle frame, shall have
resulted from application of the forces specified.
(m) Reflector mount and alignment test. (Ref. Sec. 1512.16 (c) and
(d)).
(1) Procedure. A force of 89 N (20 lbf) shall be applied to the
reflector mount in at least three directions selected as most likely to
affect its alignment. At least one of those directions shall be selected
to represent a force that would be expected in lifting the bicycle by
grasping the reflector.

[[Page 512]]

(2) Criteria. (i) During test: The optical axis of the reflector
shall remain parallel within 15 deg. to the line or intersection of the
ground plane and the center plane of the bicycle defined as a plane
containing both wheels and the centerlines of the down tube and seat
mast.
(ii) Post test: The optical axis of the reflector shall remain
parallel within 5 deg. to the line or intersection of the ground plane
and the center plane of the bicycle defined as a plane containing both
wheels and the centerlines of the down tube and seat mast.
(n) Reflector test. (Ref. Sec. 1512.16(g)).
(1) Conditioning. The following conditioning in the order given
shall be performed prior to testing for performance.
(i) Warpage conditioning. The reflector shall be held in a preheated
oven for at least one hour at 50 deg.plus-minus5 deg.C
(122plus-minus5.4 deg.F). A pedal reflector may be
conditioned integrally with its pedal.
(ii) Mechanical impact conditioning. The reflector shall be mounted
faceup in a manner similar to the way in which it is mounted on the
bicycle. A 13 mm (\1/2\ in.) diameter polished steel ball shall be
dropped normal to the center of the face of the reflector from a height
of 0.76 m (30 in.). The ball may be guided by a tube with holes, but not
restricted in free fall. Pedal reflectors are exempt from this impact
conditioning.
(iii) Moisture conditioning. The reflector shall be submerged in tap
water in a suitable container. The container shall be pressurized in
17.2 kN/m2 (2.5 psi) (equivalent to 1.7 m (5\3/4\ ft.)) of
water for 15 minutes and then released.
(2) Reflector performance test. (i) Arrangements for the reflector
performance test shall be as shown in figure 3 and the distance D
between the light source and the reflector shall be 30.5 m (100 ft.).
The source of illumination shall be a lamp with a 51 mm (2.0 in.)
effective diameter and a filament operating at
2,856plus-minus10 percent color temperature. The observation
point shall be colocated (as close as practicable) with the source of
illumination. The reflector shall be mounted with the center of the
reflector at the center of rotation and at the same horizontal level as
the source of illumination. Photometric measurements shall be made at
the observation angles and entrance angles given in tables 1 and 2.
(ii) The observation angle is the angle formed by a line from the
point of observation to the center of the reflector with a second line
from the center of the reflector to the source of illumination. The
entrance angle is the angle between the optical axis of the reflector
and a line from the center of the reflector to the source of
illumination. The entrance angle shall be designated left, right, up,
and down in accordance with the position of the source of illumination
with respect to the axis of the reflector as viewed from behind the
reflector when the plane of the observation angle is vertical and the
receiver is above the source.
(iii) Photometric measurements shall be made either visually or
photoelectrically. With either method, the light reflected to the
observation point shall be determined. Also, the illumination on the
reflector from the source shall be measured.
(iv) For visual measurements a comparison lamp, emitting light
similar in spectral quality to the reflector, shall be located adjacent
to the reflector (at an angle not to exceed \1/2\ deg.) and arranged so
that the candlepower can be varied from 0.01 to 0.25 to make the
intensity duplicate that of the reflector under test. The candlepower of
the source of the illumination of the reflector under test shall be
known or determined for this test. Means shall be provided to change the
intensity of the source of illumination without changing the filament
color temperature. The comparison lamp shall be designed to avoid
reflection from the source of illumination back in the direction of the
observer. It shall be of such size and so diffused that when viewed by
the observer (through a 2\1/2\ x reducing monocular), the candlepower
can be readily compared and adjusted to that of the reflector. The
observer shall have at least 10 minutes of dark adaption before making
observations. For photoelectric measurements, the opening to the
photocell shall not be more than \1/2\ inch vertical by 1 inch
horizontal.
(v) Reflectors that mount on the bicycle in a fixed rotational
position

[[Page 513]]

with respect to the bicycle, or the bicycle component on which they are
mounted (such as pedals or spokes), shall be tested with a single
orientation. Reflectors that do not mount on the bicycle in a fixed
rotational position with respect to the bicycle shall be rotated about
their axis through 360 deg. to find the minimum candlepower per
footcandle for each test point. If the measurement falls below the
minimum requirement at any test point, the reflector shall be rotated
plus-minus5 deg. about its axis from the angle where the
minimum occurs, and the maximum candlepower per footcandle within this
angle shall be the measured value.
(vi) Should uncolored reflections from the front surface interfere
with photometric readings at any test point the lowest reading and
location within 1 deg. above, below, right, and left of the test point
shall meet the minimum requirement for the test point.
(vii) A recommended coordinate system for definition of color is the
``Internationale de l'Eclairage (CIE 1931)'' system in the IES Lighting
Handbook, \5\ fifth edition, 1972. In the coordinate system and when
illuminated by the source defined in table 4 of this part 1512, a
reflector will be considered to be red if its color falls within the
region bounded by the red spectrum locus and the lines y0.980--x and
y0.335; a reflector will be considered to be amber if its color falls
within the region bounded by the yellow spectrum locus and the lines
y0.382, y0.790-0.667x, and y x--0.120.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

\5\ Copies may be obtained from Illuminating Engineering Society, 35
East 47th Street, New York, N.Y. 10017.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

(o) Reflective tire and rim test (Ref. Sec. 1512.16(h) and (i)).
(1) Apparatus. Arrangements for the reflective intensity measurement
shall be as shown in figure 3 of this part 1512. A light projector
(having a maximum effective lens diameter of D/500, where D is the
distance from the source to the retroreflective surface being measured)
capable of projecting light of uniform intensity shall be used to
illuminate the sample. The light falling on the sample shall have a
color temperature of 2856 deg.K+10% (equivalent to a tungsten filament
lamp operated at a color temperature of 2856 deg.K+10% having
approximately the relative energy distribution given in table 4 of this
part 1512). The light reflected from the test surface shall be measured
with a photoelectric receiver, the response of which has been corrected
for the spectral sensitivity of the average photopic human eye. The
dimensions of the active area of the receiver shall be such that no
point on the perimeter of the receiver is more than D/100 from its
center (where d is the distance from the receiver to the retroreflective
surface). Wheels used for the measurement of retroreflective tires or
rims shall have all exposed metallic surfaces, including spokes, masked
in flat black so that when measured these surfaces indicate no
appreciable reflectance. The tire shall be mounted and fully inflated.
Distances shall be measured from the plane of the wheel and the center
of the hub. For the tests, the distance D between the projector and the
center of the wheel and distance d between the center of the wheel and
the receiver shall each be at least 15 m (50 ft.).
(2) Procedure--(i) Masking. The reflecting strip to be tested shall
be within two concentric circles, the larger of which is no more than
0.02 m (0.79 in.) greater in radius than the smaller. While additional
reflecting material is permitted outside such boundaries, such
additional material shall not be counted in determining the average
width of the reflecting strip and shall be masked off with opaque, matte
black tape in testing the reflecting material.
(ii) Orientation. Every position of the reflecting strip on the rim
or the mounted and fully inflated tire to be tested shall be oriented so
that the normal to this portion is within 40 deg. of parallel to the
axis of rotation of the wheel.
(iii) Measurement. Measure the distance d from the receiver to the
center of the wheel and the minimum distance r from the axis of rotation
of the wheel to the unmasked portion of the reflective strip. Measure
the illumination incident on the reflective strip at uniform intervals
of no more than 45 deg. around the wheel, with the receiver

[[Page 514]]

oriented in the direction of the incident radiation. The average of such
readings will be the mean illumination of the sample E. If any one of
such readings differs by more than 10 percent from the mean
illumination, then a more uniform source must be obtained. Measure the
illumination of the receiver due to reflection from the retroreflective
surface for each entrance angle and each observation angle given in
table 3 of this part 1512. The entrance angle and the observation angle
shall be in the same plane. A negative entrance angle (figure 3 of this
part 1512) is specified when the entrance angle is small because the
location of the receiver with respect to the direction of illumination
becomes important for distinguishing between ordinary mirror-like
reflection and retroreflection. The illumination incident on the test
surface and the receiver shall be measured in the same units on a linear
scale. Compute the ratio A for each combination of entrance angle and
observation angle listed in table 3 as follows:

A=[(Er/Es)(d2/r)]

Where:

A=Ratio in meters,
Er=Illumination incident upon the receiver,
Es=Illumination incident upon a plane perpendicular to the
incident ray at the specimen position (see instructions above
in this paragraph (o)(2)(iii) for averaging), measured in the
same units as Er,
d=The distance in meters from the receiver to the center of the wheel,
r=The minimum radius in meters of the boundary circles of the
retroreflective strip.

The minimum value of A shall be that listed in table 3 of this part 1512
for each combination of entrance angle and observation angle. The plane
containing the entrance angle and the plane containing the observation
angle shall coincide. In table 3, a positive entrance angle corresponds
to the case in which the line of sight to the receiver lies between the
line of incidence and the optic axis of the reflector, and a negative
entrance angle corresponds to the case in which the line of incidence
lies between the line of sight of the receiver and optic axis of the
reflector.
(iv) Criteria. The ratio A as defined in Sec. 1511.18(o)(2)(iii)
shall not be less than:

A=[4(cos2/1+(o/0.225)3/2]

where A is ratio in meters, is the entrance angle, and o is the
observation angle in degrees. The criterion applies only for entrance
angles from 0 deg. to 40 deg. and observation angles from 0.2 deg. to
1.5 deg., and performance is not specified beyond this range. The values
of A in table 3 are obtained from the above formula by rounding up to
two significant figures. Except in cases in which the performance of the
reflector is seriously questionable, a reflector with A at least the
value given in table 3 at each of the six combinations of entrance and
observation angles will be considered to satisfy this criteria.
(p) Road test. (Ref. Secs. 1512.15(c) and 1512.17(a)).
(1) Procedure. The bicycle shall be ridden at least 6.4 km (4.0 mi.)
by a rider weighing at least 68.1 kg (150 lb.) with the tires inflated
to maximum recommended pressure. Travel shall include riding the bicycle
five times over a 30 m (100 ft.) course of wooden cleats fastened to a
paved surface. The cleats shall be a full 25 mm (1.0 in.) high by 51 mm
(2.0 in.) wide lumber with a 12 mm by 12 mm (\1/2\ in. by \1/2\ in.)
chamfer of 45 deg. on the corners contacting the tires. The cleats shall
be spaced every 1.8 m (6.0 ft.) over the 30 m (100 ft.) course. The
bicycle shall be ridden over the cleated course at a speed of at least
24 km/hr (15 mph) with the rider firmly seated.
(2) Criteria. The bicycle shall exhibit stable handling, turning,
and steering characteristics without difficulty of operation. There
shall be no system or component failure of the structure, brakes, or
tires and there shall be no loosening or misalignment of the seat,
handlebars, controls, or reflectors.
(q) Sidewalk bicycle proof test. (Ref. Secs. 1512.15(c) and
1512.17(b)).
(1) Procedure. The bicycle shall be loaded with weights of 13.6 kg
(30 lb.) on the seat surface and 4.5 kg (10 lb.) attached to the end of
each handle grip for a total load of 22.7 kg (50 lb.). The bicycle shall
be lifted a distance of 0.3 m (1.0 ft.) and dropped (while maintaining
an upright position) three times onto a paved surface. Following this

[[Page 515]]

and with weight removed, it shall be allowed to fall in any
configuration and attitude from an upright position to the paved surface
three times on each side.
(r) Abrasion test for retroreflective rims. (Ref. Sec. 1512.16(i)).
(1) This test consists of a steel wire cup brush rotating at a constant
velocity of 60 rpm that is applied at a force of 2 N (0.45 lbf) to the
retroreflective material on one side of a bicycle wheel rim. The rim is
rotated about the axle at a linear velocity of 0.23 m/sec (9 in./sec).
The test is complete when the wheel has completed 1000 revolutions.
(2) Apparatus. Figure 8 of this part 1512 illustrates the following
test fixture arrangement that is suitable to perform this abrasion test:
(i) Test fixture. The test fixture contains a clamp to hold the axle
of a bicycle wheel so that the wheel can rotate freely about the axle.
The axis of rotation is capable of being inclined from the vertical to
bring that portion of the side of the wheel rim containing the
retroreflective material into a horizontal plane as it passes beneath
the abrading brush. A drive mechanism to rotate the bicycle wheel
contains a means to adjust the rotational velocity to obtain the
specified linear velocity measured at a point on the wheel rim on the
axis of the abrading brush.
(ii) Abrader. The abrader is a cup brush meeting the specification
in paragraph (r)(3)(v) of this section. It is mounted in a chuck
attached to a motor that rotates about a vertical axis at the specified
rotational velocity. A means is provided to apply the rotating cup brush
at the specified force against the retroreflective material on the
bicycle wheel rim. The axis of the abrading brush is positioned on the
mid point in the width of the retroreflective material. The force is
produced by deadweights applied to a pan on the axis of the
counterbalanced motor/brush assembly.
(3) Specifications. (i) The linear velocity of the reflective band
on wheel rim shall be 0.23 m/sec (9 in./sec) measured at a point on the
axis of the abrading brush.
(ii) The rotational velocity of the abrading brush shall be 60 rpm.
(iii) The force normal to the plane of the retroreflective material
at which the abrading brush is to be applied shall be 2 N (0.45 lbf).
(iv) The bicycle wheel shall make 1000 complete revolutions per
test.
(v) The abrader shall be a cup brush having bristles that are 0.005
in. (approx. 0.13mm) diameter low carbon steel wire; an outside diameter
of 0.5 inch (aprox. .13mm); a wire bristle length of 0.25 inch (approx.
6.4mm); and a cup diameter of 0.405 inch (approx. 10.29mm). \6\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

\6\ For compliance testing the Commission will use a brush meeting
this description distributed by Dremel Manufacturing Company, Racine,
Wisconsin as Dremel Part No. 442. This brush is manufactured by Weiler
Brush Company as No. 26074, MC-10 Wire.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

(vi) The abrasion test shall be conducted at an ambient temperature
of between 16 deg.C (60 deg.F) and 27 deg.C (80 deg.F).
(4) Procedure. (i) The retroreflective bicycle rim to be tested
shall be an unused sample free from grit, grime and grease. Prior to
beginning the test, remove, according to instructions supplied with the
bicycle, any protective coating or material used to prevent damage in
shipping.
(ii) Test the wheel in a suitable test fixture, according to the
specifications in paragraph (r)(3) of this section.
(iii) Clamp the wheel by its axle in the test fixture and align the
axis of rotation so that the portion of the reflective material below
the axis of the abrading brush is horizontal.
(iv) Shape the cup brush by hand to the specified 0.5 (approx. 13mm)
diameter. Any stray wire bristles projecting more than 1/32 in. (approx.
1 mm) beyond the tip of the bulk of the bristles should be clipped off.
Adjust the position of the brush so that its axis is centered over the
mid-point in the width of the retroreflective material.
(v) Adjust the rotational velocity of the bicycle wheel to obtain a
linear velocity of 0.23 m/sec (9 in./sec) measured at the mid-point in
the width of the retroreflective material. Adjust the force to obtain a
force normal to the surface under the brush of 2 N (0.45 lbf).
(vi) Apply the abrading brush to the retroreflective material on the
wheel

[[Page 516]]

rim, and continue the test for 1000 complete revolutions of the bicycle
wheel.
[43 FR 60034, Dec. 22, 1978, as amended at 45 FR 82628, Dec. 16, 1980;
46 FR 3204, Jan. 14, 1981]

Sec. 1512.19 Instructions and labeling.

A bicycle shall have an instruction manual attached to its frame or
included with the packaged unit.
(a) The instruction manual shall include at least the following:
(1) Operations and safety instructions describing operation of the
brakes and gears, cautions concerning wet weather and night-time
operation, and a guide for safe on-and-off road operation.
(2) Assembly instructions for accomplishing complete and proper
assembly.
(3) Maintenance instructions for proper maintenance of brakes,
control cables, bearing adjustments, wheel adjustments, lubrication,
reflectors, tires and handlebar and seat adjustments; should the
manufacturer determine that such maintenance is beyond the capability of
the consumer, specifics regarding locations where such maintenance
service can be obtained shall be included.
(b) A bicycle less than fully assembled and fully adjusted shall
have clearly displayed on any promotional display material and on the
outside surface of the shipping carton the following: (1) A list of
tools necessary to properly accomplish assembly and adjustment, (2) a
drawing illustrating the minimum leg-length dimension of a rider and a
method of measurement of this dimension.
(c) The minimum leg-length dimension shall be readily understandable
and shall be based on allowing no less than one inch of clearance
between (1) the top tube of the bicycle and the ground plane and (2) the
crotch measurement of the rider. A girl's style frame shall be specified
in the same way using a corresponding boys' model as a basis.
(d) [Reserved]
(e) Every bicycle subject to the requirements of this part 1512
shall bear a marking or label that is securely affixed on or to the
frame of the bicycle in such a manner that the marking or label cannot
be removed without being defaced or destroyed. The marking or label
shall identify the name of the manufacturer or private labeler and shall
also bear some form of marking from which the manufacturer can identify
the month and year of manufacture or from which the private labeler can
identify the manufacturer and the month and year of manufacture. For
purposes of this paragraph, the term manufacture means the completion by
the manufacturer of a bicycle of those construction or assembly
operations that are performed by the manufacturer before the bicycle is
shipped from the manufacturer's place of production for sale to
distributors, retailers, or consumers.
[43 FR 60034, Dec. 22, 1978, as amended at 60 FR 62990, Dec. 8, 1995]

Sec. 1512.20 Separability.

If any section or portion thereof of this part 1512 or its
application to any person or circumstance is held invalid, the remainder
of the section(s) and its (their) application to other persons or
circumstances is not thereby affected.

Subpart B--Policies and Interpretations [Reserved]

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Table 1--Minimum Candlepower per Incident Foot-Candle for Clear
Reflector \1\
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Front, rear, and Pedal reflectors;
side reflectors; entrance angle in
entrance angle in degrees
degrees ------------------
Observation angle ---------------------
20 10 20
0 10 up/ left/ 0 up/ left/
down right down right
------------------------------------------------------------------------
0.2............................. 27.0 18.0 9.0 7.5 6.0 3.0
0.3............................. ..... ..... ..... 6.0 4.8 2.4
1.5............................. .28 .20 .12 .28 .20 .12
------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ Amber values shall be \5/8\ x clear values. Red values shall be \1/
4\ clear values.


Table 2--Minimum Candlepower per Incident Foot-Candle for Clear
Reflector \1\
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Front, rear, and side
reflectors; entrance
angle in degrees
Observation angle -----------------------
30 40 50
left/ left/ left/
right right right
------------------------------------------------------------------------
0.2............................................. 8.0 7.0 6.0
1.5............................................. .12 .12 .12
------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ Amber values shall be \5/8\ x clear values. Red values shall be \1/
4\ x clear values.


Table 3--Minimum Acceptable Values for the Quantity A Defined in the
Retroreflective Tire and Rim Test Procedure
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Minimum acceptable value of
Entrance A
Observation angle (degrees) angle -----------------------------
(degrees) Meters Feet
------------------------------------------------------------------------
0.2............................ -4 2.2 7.25
.2............................ 20 1.9 6.27
.2............................ 40 1.3 4.29
1.5............................ -4 .22 .73
1.5............................ 20 .19 .63
1.5............................ 40 .13 .43
------------------------------------------------------------------------

[43 FR 60034, Dec. 22, 1978, as amended at 45 FR 82631, Dec. 16, 1980;
46 FR 3204, Jan. 14, 1981]

Table 4--Relative Energy Distribution of Sources
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Relative
Wave length (nanometers) energy
------------------------------------------------------------------------
380.......................................................... 9.79
390.......................................................... 12.09
400.......................................................... 14.71
410.......................................................... 17.68
420.......................................................... 21.00
430.......................................................... 24.67
440.......................................................... 28.70
450.......................................................... 33.09
460.......................................................... 37.82
470.......................................................... 42.87
480.......................................................... 48.25
490.......................................................... 53.91
500.......................................................... 59.86
510.......................................................... 66.06
520.......................................................... 72.50
530.......................................................... 79.13
540.......................................................... 85.95
550.......................................................... 92.91
560.......................................................... 100.00
570.......................................................... 107.18
580.......................................................... 114.44
590.......................................................... 121.73
600.......................................................... 129.04
610.......................................................... 136.34
620.......................................................... 143.62
630.......................................................... 150.83
640.......................................................... 157.98
650.......................................................... 165.03
660.......................................................... 171.96
670.......................................................... 178.77
680.......................................................... 185.43
690.......................................................... 191.93
700.......................................................... 198.26
710.......................................................... 204.41
720.......................................................... 210.36
730.......................................................... 216.12
740.......................................................... 221.66
750.......................................................... 227.00
760.......................................................... 232.11


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